The bedsore, better defined as pressure sores, is a skin wound that occurs due to a prolonged crushing of a part of the body. The skin, compressed between the bony prominence and an outer projection which can be represented by a mattress or pillow of a wheel chair, not more then receives a fair bloodstream.
In normal cases the body is able to “fight” itself due to normal motion and movement. However, those who are in a condition of medical impediment of movement, limited to the bed for a long period of time, are subject to the formation of bedsores.
The points of the body most affected are the heels, ankles, hips, buttocks, tailbone or Wherever you are compressed for a long period.
Immobility may be due to:
- hospitalizations of long duration
- injuries that require long immobility in bed
- physical disability
Factors that increase the risk of developing pressure sores :
- age , the skin of the elderly is generally more fragile , thinner, less elastic and drier than that of younger people. In addition Mature produces new skin cells more slowly, this makes it more vulnerable to damage.
- lack of sensory perception : spinal cord injuries or neurological disorders can cause a loss of sensitivity. The inability to feel pain contributes to the formation of pressure sores ;
- weight loss: the weight loss is common during prolonged illnesses , also muscular atrophy and slimming are phenomena that often occur in people with paralysis. The loss of fat and muscle promotes the weakening of the skin with the result that the bones the “piercing ” with more ease ;
- dehydration and malnutrition, the body needs to absorb enough fluids , calories, protein, vitamins and minerals to function properly and to keep your skin healthy and prevent the breakdown of tissues ;
- excessive dryness or conversely a skin too oily. In both cases, increasing the friction between the skin and clothing or bedding . This favors the formation of pressure sores ;
- pathologies affecting the proper functioning of the blood flow . Vascular disease or diabetes increase the risk of tissue damage ;
- smoke reduces blood flow and limits the amount of oxygen in the blood . Smokers tend to develop into a more serious wounds .
The operator has many tools to reduce the size of the pressure ulcer and to cure it permanently. Depending on the severity, there are four degrees of definition established by EPUAP European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, is done in a superficial or even surgically possible with autologous skin grafting.